• 過去に開催したシアターコモンズのアーカイブページです。

*Written in English and Japanese

コモンズ・フォーラム#3 「芸術と仮想性」に寄せて

シアター・コモンズから示されたアントナン・アルトーの言葉に応じて、議論の場においては、仮想性に関するブライアン・ロットマンの思想を少し紹介することを予定していた。ロットマンはもともと数学を専門とする哲学者であり、筆記技術からデジタルメディアまで、さまざまなテクノロジーの心理的・身体的影響に関心を寄せている。『Becoming besides Ourselves: The Alphabet, Ghosts and Distributed Human Being』(デューク大学出版、2008年)においてロットマンは、仮想性が現代の電子技術に縛りつけられているという理解は間違っていると主張している。彼の主張によると、仮想性は古代から存在している。いま私たちが知っている仮想性は「現代の技術的マトリックスに先立って、古代から続いて」(122)おり、いわば「現象の第3波」である。「第2波は言葉を文章に残すことから始まった。第1波は、言語の誕生から切り離すことができない」(112)。つまり、仮想性とは古くから存在しながらも、現代的な姿を纏ったものとして理解することが重要だとロットマンは提案している。仮想性と過去と決別するものとしてではなく、過去から現在まで継続しているものとして捉える。仮想性は言葉と筆記技術の発明が人間に新たな体験、想像、思考の可能性を示した現象の一部である。また、これら技術との交換を通して、身体的現実に仮想的次元を開けるのである。従ってロットマンは、仮想性とは、私たちが生きている身体的現実と切断できるものではないと考えるようにと、呼びかけている。つまり彼にとっての仮想性とは、技術との交換を通して、身体的現実に無数の次元が現れることから成るのだ。




Thoughts for the Commons Forum # 3 “Arts and Virtuality”
Maaike Bleeker

First of all, let me state again how sorry I am not to be present with you at this very exciting Forum. I am also very sorry to have to miss Meiro Koizumi’s Prometheus Bound, which I had been much looking forward to attending.
As many of you probably know, Prometheus Bound is not only the title of Meiro Koizumi’s creation but also the title of a Greek tragedy from the 5th century BC, usually attributed to Aeschylus. According to Derrick de Kerckhove, this play centering around the figure of Prometheus, played an important role in the development of a new kind of spectatorship at that time in ancient Greece. Namely that of a situation in which the spectator is no longer part of a ritualistic event but an onlooker bound to a place outside the unfolding of the action.
The figure of Prometheus also plays a remarkable role in the philosophy of technology, in particular Bernard Stiegler’s work on the co-evolution of humans and technology. Prometheus, in his work, stands for the beginning of this co-evolution in which humans become humans through their interaction with technologies of various kinds. With this philosophy, Stiegler criticizes the idea that technology is fundamentally alien to humans and humanity and argues instead that it is precisely through interaction with technology that humans have become what we nowadays recognize as human, and it is through interaction with technology that we may reach new stages of what it means to be human.
I am very curious to see how Koizumi’s take on Prometheus Bound relates to these histories of thinking. I hope I will have another opportunity to experience this.
What I was planning to bring into the discussion here today in response to the references to Artaud proposed by the organizers of this forum, are some ideas about the virtual expressed by Brian Rotman. Rotman is a philosopher originally trained in mathematics, and with a special interest in the psychic and corporeal effects of various technologies, from writing to digital media. In his book Becoming besides Ourselves: The Alphabet, Ghosts and Distributed Human Being, he argues that it is a misunderstanding to think that virtuality is tied to contemporary electronic technologies. Virtuality, he observes, is ancient. Virtuality as we know it today “continues a history that long antedates its current technological matrix” (112) and is “the third great wave of the phenomenon. “The second wave came with the writing of speech. The first cannot be separated from the advent of human language itself” (112). So what Rotman proposes is an understanding of virtuality today as a contemporary manifestation of something that is actually much older. Of virtuality as we know it today as a continuation rather than a break with the past. Virtuality he argues is part of how ever since the invention of speech and writing technologies make possible new ways of experiencing, imagining and thinking. Of how these technologies and our interaction with them open up, as he puts it, dimensions of the virtual in reality. He thus proposes an understanding of virtuality not as another world separate from the world we find ourselves in in reality. Rather, virtuality in his understanding consists of dimensions opened up within reality and this happens as a result of our interaction with technology.
I find Rotman’s ideas most relevant and interesting in relation to what the organizers of this forum have asked us to think about because they suggest the possibility of conceiving of theatre and the performing arts as a practice that has a history of experimenting with opening up dimensions of virtuality in reality, using various technologies for doing so, from language to high tech. Furthermore, Rotman’s understanding of the virtual as dimensions opened up in reality also suggests that the very nature of the theatrical event, of staging something to be experienced by an audience in the here and now, makes theatre a practice par excellence of experimenting with opening up dimensions of the virtual in reality.